An Overview of Social, Economic, Environmental, and Safety Impacts of Intelligent Electric Vehicles

Muhammad Uzair, Saleh Hosain

Keywords: Autonomous vehicles, safety/security, social, economical, environment

Issue II, Volume II, Pages 99 - 132

Internet of Things (IoT) can connect millions of devices, objects, appliances,

sensors, and applications together to collect huge amount of data for multipurpose applications.

It requires an efficient network to carry out these processes in a faster way which is

accomplished with the help of 5G networking, i.e., ability to provide a very high data rate, etc.

Autonomous vehicles (smart cars) are one of the applications of the IoT which integrates its

components to make smart cars working as robots. Smart cars will have great impact on our

society (like different driving experience, improving accessibility to urban opportunities to

different groups of people, providing a convenient, comfortable, and flexible transportation,

etc.), environment (like fuel consumption, gas emissions, land use, and urban spatial structure,

etc.), economy (many current practices will close with new opportunities), and safety/security

(software failures, denial of service, eavesdropping, hijacking, etc.). These impacts will be

profound, particularly for level 5 automation smart cars.

This research analyzes key aspects of the autonomous vehicles with respect to these issues

along with ethical dilemmas. This study clearly shows that lots of work still needs to be done

by the manufacturers, the vendors, the industry, and the governments in order to make this

technology adaptable. The study also describes that until now many aspects of this technology

are also ambiguous, i.e., technology will have positive or a negative impacts, which group of

the society will get more benefits, and which group might be affected negatively, etc.

Therefore, the study highlights the need of more empirical results from industry, and research

community in order to make a conclusion of the impacts of the technology. Similarly, greater

emphasis should be given to the safety and security because if this technology is not a hundred

percent safe, it will not be widely accepted. An attack on a smart car does not only threaten the

safety and privacy of drivers, passengers and everyone traveling on the road, but also has a big

impact on the auto industry, i.e., millions of cars have already been recalled in many cases.

Finally, the research also highlights different challenges/issues faced by this technology. The

research also proposes recommendations and solutions in order to handle these current and

future challenges keeping in view that the security/safety is one of the biggest challenges for

the autonomous vehicles (AVS). At the end, the research also proposes a new comprehensive

layered architecture for the AVS with particular focus towards security and safety of the AVs

and making it safer and reliable as compared to the existing architecture.

[1] Alem C, Mesud H. Internet of Things (IoT): A review of enabling technologies, challenges, and open research issues.

Computer Networks 2018; 144: 17-39.

[2] Rappaport S, Shu S, Rimma M, Hang Z, Yaniv A, Kevin W, Jocelyn S, Mathew S, Felix G. Millimeter Wave Mobile Communications for 5 G Cellular: It Will Work. IEEE Access 2013; 1: 335-349.

[3] Urooj S, Irum F, Nadeem A. Systematic literature review on user interfaces of autonomous cars: Liabilities and responsibilities. In: IEEE 2018 International

Conference on Advancements in Computational Sciences (ICACS); 19-21 Feb 2018; Lahore, Pakistan: pp. 1-10.

[4] Kyle Gershbain. The Future of automotive: Looking ahead to 2025. Concord, Ontario: St. Joseph Communications (SJC), 2017.

[5] Krasniqi X, Hajrizi E. Use of IoT Technology to Drive the Automotive Industry from Connected to Full Autonomous Vehicles. Elsevier 2016; 49: 269-274.

[6] Thomas A , Sick N, Sonja H. On sceptics and enthusiasts: What are the expectations towards self-driving cars.22 Elsevier

Transport Policy 2018; 66: 49-55.23

[7] Dorairaj V. The Connected Car. Architecture, Challenges, and Way Forward. New York, US: Sasken Technologies Limited, 2017.

[8] Rashid M ,Fakhrul A. Could Future Wireless Communications Be Harmful. Palmerston, New Zealand: Massey University Project Report, 2017.

[9] Morteza T, Austin L, Hannah R, Shen Q, Ming Xu. A Review on Energy, Environmental, and Sustainability Implications of Connected and Automated Vehicles. Environment Science Technology 2018; 52: 11449-11465.

[10] Sebastian H, Kay W. Recent perspectives on the impact of autonomous vehicles. Zurich, Switzerland: Institute for Transport Planning and Systems, Swiss federal institute of technology, 2016.

[11] JeeryG , Susan S. Automated Vehicles, On-Demand Mobility, and Environmental Impacts. Springer Current

Sustainable/Renewable Energy Reports 2015; 2: 74-81.

[12] Zia W, Don M, Paul L. Help or hindrance? The travel, energy and carbon impacts of highly automated vehicles. Elsevier Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 2016; 86: 1-18.

[13] Peter B. AV / ZEV Environmental Health Impact Assessment. Victoria, Australia: Aurecon Australia, 2018.

[14] Matthew B, Kanok B, Guoyuan W. The potential role of vehicle automation in reducing traffic related energy and emissions. In: IEEE 2013 International Conference on Connected Vehicles and Expo (ICCVE); 26 Dec 2013; Las Vegas, NV, USA: pp. 604- 608.

[15] Raphael B, Climate and energy impacts of automated vehicles, Goldman School of Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley, June 2014.

[16] Anne Hudson, Jinhua Zhao, Are cities prepared for Autonomous Vehicles ? Planning for technological change, U.S. Local governments Journal of the American Planning Association, May 2019

[17] Daniel J. Fagnant A, Kara K. Preparing a nation for autonomous vehicles: opportunities, barriers and policy recommendations. Elsevier Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 2015; 77: 167-181.

[18] Daniel J, Kara K. The travel and environmental implications of shared autonomous vehicles, using agent based1 model scenarios . Transportation Research Part C 2015; 40: 1-13.

[19] Clark B, Parkhurst G, Ricci M. Understanding the Socioeconomic Adoption Scenarios for Autonomous Vehicles: A3 Literature Review. Bristol, UK: University of the West of England Project Report, 2016.

[20] Todd L. Are Vehicle Travel Reduction Targets Justied? Evaluating Mobility Management Policy Such As Targets To Reduce VMT And Increase Use Of Alternative Modes. Victoria, Canada: Victoria Transport Institute, 2013.

[21] Lewis M. Clements Kara. Kockelman, Economic effects of automated vehicles, Transportation research record, Journal of transportation board, Jan 2017.

[22] Todd L, Autonomous Vehicle Implementation Predictions: Implications for Transport Planning, Victoria, Canada: Victoria Transport Policy Institute, 2013.

[23], 2019 (accessed 13 September 2020).

[24] Jack S. We need rules for self driving cars. Issues in Science and Technology 2018; 34: 52-57.

[25] Liechtung J. The race is on! Regulating self-driving vehicles before they hit the streets. Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial and Commercial Law 2018; 12: 389-413.

[26] Edmond A, Sydney L, Max K, Sohan D. Blaming humans in autonomous vehicle accidents: Shared responsibility across levels of automation. MA, USA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2018.

[27] Klauer G, Thomas A. The Impact of Driver Inattention on Near-Crash/Crash Risk: An Analysis Using the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study Data. Washington, USA: National Highway traffic safety administration, 2006.

[28] Dingus L, Jeremy S. Critical Reasons for Crashes Investigated in the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey. Washington, USA: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), 2015.

[29] Straub J, Hartman J. Cyber Security considerations for an interconnected self-driving car systems. In: IEEE 2017 System of Systems Engineering Conference; 18-21 June 2017; Waikoloa, HI, USA: pp. 1045-1052.

[30] Orhan M, Sukru O. Review on Cyber Risks Relating to Security Management in Smart Cars. In: IEEE 2018 International Conference on Computer Science and Eng.; 20-23 Sept 2018; Sarajevo, Bosnia: pp. 406-409

[31] Haghi A, Ketabi D, Ghanbari M, Rajabi H. Assessment of Human Errors in Driving Accidents; Analysis of the Causes Based on Aberrant Behaviors. Life Science Journal 2014; 11: 414-420.

[32] Sharon L, Luka M. The Google Car: Driving Toward A Better Future?. Journal of Business Studies 2014; 10: 7-14.

[33] Hevelke A. Responsibility for crashes of autonomous vehicles: An ethical analysis. Springer Science and Engineering Ethics 2015; 21: 619-630.

[34], 2017 (accessed 12 September 2020).

[35] sensible-regulation, 2018 (accessed 12 September 2020).

[36] Mladenovic N. Engineering social justice into traffic control for self-driving vehicles. Springer Science and Engineering Ethics 2016; 22: 1131-1149.

[37] Scott W, Shogan S. Qiang H. Use of Data from Connected and Automated Vehicles for Travel Demand Modeling. MI, USA: Center for Automotive Research (CAR), 2015.

[38] Thomopoulos N, Givoni M. The autonomous car-a blessing or a curse for the future of low carbon mobility? An exploration of likely vs. desirable outcomes. European Journal of Futures Research 2015; 3: 168-182.

[39] Luis E. Autonomous Vehicles: A Critical Tool to Solve the XXI Century Urban Transportation Grand Challenge. In: 3rd International Conference on Urban Public Transportation; 17-20 Nov 2013; Paris, France: pp. 564-571.

[40], 2017 (accessed 12 September 2020).

[41], 2015 (accessed 12 September 2020).

[42] Zhang W. LIDAR-based road and road-edge detection. In: IEEE 2010 Intelligent Vehicles Symposium; 21-24 June 2010; CA, USA: pp. 845-848.

[43] Jamie C. Lidar Just Got Way Better-But It's Still Too Expensive for Your Car. MA, USA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2017.

[44] Victor H. Ultimate Sensor Battle: Lidarvs Radar. Berlin, Germany: Intelligent software engineering, 2018.

[45] Juntae K, GeunY, Youngi K, Kim B. Deep Learning Algorithm using Virtual Environment Data for Self-driving Car. In: IEEE 2019 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Information and Communication; 11-13 Feb 2019; Okinawa, Japan: pp. 444-448.

[46] Ian F, Akyildiz S. 5G roadmap: 10 key enabling technologies. Elsevier Computer Networks 2016; 106: 17-48.

[47] James M, Nidhi K, Karlyn D, Paul S. Autonomous Vehicle Technology. California, USA: RAND Corporation, 2016

[48] Raphael B. Climate and energy impacts of automated vehicles. Goldman School of Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley, June 2014.

[49] Preparing for a driverless future. Nshisht Desai Legal and tax consulting associates, September, 2017.

[50] Andreas F. Standards for vehicular communication- from IEEE 802.11p to 5G. Article in e &iElektrotechnik und Information stechnik 2015; 3: 931-949.

[51] Adrian C, Carlos S, Alejandro R, and Pascual C. A Review of Deep Learning Methods and Applications for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Journal of sensors 2017; 548-562