**Investigation of the Influence of Formulation Method on Dispersion Stability and Thermal Properties of Al2O3-CC-DW Nanofluids**

Issue I, Volume I, Pages 1-19

The present study investigated influence of formulation methods on the physical

properties and heat transfer behaviour of aluminium oxide-car coolant-distilled water nanofluids.

The nanofluid solutions were formulated via two methods, namely the conventional method (M1),

where nanoparticles were added into the CC-DW mixture and the proposed method (M2), where

distilled water was added into the Al2O3-CC mixture. From the measurement of physical

properties, it was observed that the proposed M2 method was more favourable compared to the

conventional method because it promoted reductions in density and viscosity values, and also

improvement in thermal conductivity. A similar trend was observed when examining nanofluids

in the natural convective experiment. The proposed formulation resulted in better dispersion

stability when subjected to heat. In addition, the M2 formulation gave higher Grashof (Gr),

Rayleigh (Ra) and Nusselt (Nu) numbers. This study demonstrated that dispersion stability,

physical properties and thermal performance of nanofluid were remarkably influenced by the

preparation process.

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