Towards Hajj and Umrah Digital Transformation Using Smartwatches

Ghassan F. Bati, Abdullah M. Al-Ghamdi1, Ahmad F. Al-Ghoraibi, Hashim K. Sawadi, Ibrahim O. Al-Zahrani

Keywords: Digital Transformation, Smartwatches, Smart Hajj, Smart Umrah, Auto Tawaf.

Many of us now rely on smartwatches as an integral part of our lives. The smartwatch market has become one of the world’s most popular and best-selling markets. They have been used in various fields like health and sports. They have valuable features that assist people in their daily lives. With Hajj and Umrah undergoing digital transformation, smartwatches can be used to enhance pilgrims’ experience during sacred rituals. NUSK is a smartwatch launched by (SDAIA) in Hajj season 1442 AH (2021) to provide several services like displaying pilgrims’ information and health status, monitoring their health data, and requesting emergency medical or security assistance. It is vital to develop similar projects and build upon the success of NUSK. Hence, this work uses “Bangle.js”, an open-source (sw/hw) smartwatch, to present some Hajj and Umrah applications to enhance the pilgrim’s experience in the sacred journey and to help achieve our country’s ambitious vision towards Hajj and Umrah digital transformation. We also propose incorporating “Bangle.js” into the labs of microprocessor courses at Saudi Computer Colleges to allow students to broaden their skills, abilities, and thinking toward real-life applications facilitating digital transformation.

[1]       “Gartner Forecasts Global Spending on Wearable Devices to Total $81.5 Billion in 2021,” Gartner. https:// (accessed Jul. 15, 2023).

[2]       “Smartwatch Market Size, Share & Industry Growth | Analysis - 2027,” Allied Market Research. (accessed Jul. 15, 2023).

[3]       “Smartwatch Market Grows 24% YoY in 2021, Records Highest Ever Quarterly Shipments in Q4,” Counterpoint Research, Mar. 14, 2022. (accessed Jul. 15, 2023).

[4]       “Personal Transformation: Smartwatches | Digital Transformation.” (accessed Jul. 15, 2023).

[5]       P. C. Verhoef et al., “Digital transformation: A multidisciplinary reflection and research agenda,” J. Bus. Res., vol. 122, pp. 889–901, Jan. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.09.022.

[6]       “Saudi Arabi: Leadership of Digital Economy in the Middle East.” Accessed: Jul. 15, 2023. [Online]. Available:

[7]       Falhamid2@, “Employing digital transformation to maximize Hajj services: Automation of decision-making and risk governance,” Okaz, Aug. 15, 2021. (accessed Jul. 15, 2023).

[8]       “Hajj-report.pdf.” Accessed: Jul. 15, 2023. [Online]. Available:

[9]       “Pilgrim Experience Program,” Vision 2030. (accessed Jul. 15, 2023).

[10]     A. Aljuwaiber and A. K. Elnagar, “Predicting Pilgrim and Visitor Satisfaction Through Using Smartphone Applications at Holy Sites During Covid-19,” Virtual Econ., vol. 5, no. 3, Art. no. 3, Nov. 2022, doi: 10.34021/ve.2022.05.03(5).

[11]      “Smartwatch | Fitness Tracking, Wearable Tech & Health Monitoring | Britannica,” Jun. 06, 2023. (accessed Jul. 15, 2023).

[12]     “Google Trends,” Google Trends. (accessed Jul. 15, 2023).

[13]     “SDAIA, DARP & STC Launch Pilgrim’s Smart Bracelet (NUSK) The official Saudi Press Agency.” (accessed Jul. 15, 2023).

[14]     S. M. Alghamdi, A. S. Alsulayyim, J. S. Alqahtani, and A. M. Aldhahir, “Digital Health Platforms in Saudi Arabia: Determinants from the COVID-19 Pandemic Experience,” Healthcare, vol. 9, no. 11, Art. no. 11, Nov. 2021, doi: 10.3390/healthcare9111517.

[15]     “Hajj \ Artificial intelligence applications and technologies make it easier for pilgrims to perform their rituals.” (accessed Jul. 15, 2023).

[16]     SDAIA [@SDAIA_SA], “سوار الحاج الذكي (نُسك).. خدمة تقنية فريدة؛ لتحسين رحلة الحاج. #سدايا #سوار_الحاج_الذكي #بسلام_آمنين,” Twitter, Jul. 14, 2021. (accessed Jul. 15, 2023).

[17]     إمارة منطقة مكة المكرمة [@makkahregion], “#انفوجرافيك تعرّف على #سوار_الحاج_الذكي (نُسك).. أحد الخدمات الجديدة التي طورتها #سدايا بالتعاون مع وزارة الحج والعمرة وبرنامج خدمة ضيوف الرحمن 🔽,” Twitter, Jul. 14, 2021. (accessed Jul. 15, 2023).

[18]     E. A. Felemban et al., “Digital Revolution for Hajj Crowd Management: A Technology Survey,” IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 208583–208609, 2020, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3037396.

[19]     A. Aljohani, S. Nejaim, M. Khayyat, and O. Aboulola, “E-government and logistical health services during Hajj season,” Bull. Natl. Res. Cent., vol. 46, no. 1, p. 112, Apr. 2022, doi: 10.1186/s42269-022-00801-4.

[20]    A. J. Showail, “Solving Hajj and Umrah Challenges Using Information and Communication Technology: A Survey,” IEEE Access, vol. 10, pp. 75404–75427, 2022, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3190853.

[21]     “Bangle.js - Espruino.” (accessed Jul. 15, 2023).

[22]     “Espruino Web IDE.” (accessed Jul. 15, 2023).

[23]     DaqiqahSW, “Bangle.js App Loader (and Apps).” May 21, 2022. Accessed: Jul. 15, 2023. [Online]. Available:

[24]     كيفية استخدام الساعة الذكية #Bangle.js, (May 28, 2022). Accessed: Jul. 15, 2023. [Online Video]. Available:

[25]     “Prayer Times for a city Mecca, 1444.” (accessed Jul. 15, 2023).

[26]     “BangleApps/apps/athan at master · DaqiqahSW/BangleApps · GitHub.” (accessed Jul. 15, 2023).

[27]     “BangleApps/apps/mguide at master · DaqiqahSW/BangleApps,” GitHub. (accessed Jul. 15, 2023).

[28]    “BangleApps/apps/hrm at master · espruino/BangleApps · GitHub.” (accessed Jul. 15, 2023).

[29]     “BangleApps/apps/hbm at master · DaqiqahSW/BangleApps,” GitHub. (accessed Jul. 15, 2023).

[30]    “BangleApps/apps/misbaha at master · DaqiqahSW/BangleApps,” GitHub. (accessed Jul. 15, 2023).

[31]     M. K. Shambour and A. Gutub, “Progress of IoT Research Technologies and Applications Serving Hajj and Umrah,” Arab. J. Sci. Eng., vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 1253–1273, Feb. 2022, doi: 10.1007/s13369-021-05838-7.

[32]     M. Binsawad and M. Albahar, “A Technology Survey on IoT Applications Serving Umrah and Hajj,” Appl. Comput. Intell. Soft Comput., vol. 2022, p. e1919152, Aug. 2022, doi: 10.1155/2022/1919152.